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Bibliographic Style and Form

Placement and Selection
  • In Works Cited use proper bibliographical form to include all sources to which you referred in your paper.
  • Arrange entries in alphabetical order according to what comes first in the entry. (Disregard A, An, and The.)
  • Use hanging indentation. Only the first line lines up with the left margin; all others line up about 1/2 inch indented.
  • Leave one space following a comma, parentheses, period, or colon.
  • If more than one city is listed for place of publication, give only the first.
  • Use the most recent copyright date if the date of publication is not given on the title page.
  • Double space between entries and between lines of each entry.
  • Capitalize the first last and all principal words in titles. Capitalize all nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions but not articles, prepositions or coordinating conjunctions unless they are the first or last word of a title.
  • If the first part of a hyphenated word needs to be capitalized, capitalize the other part(s) as well.
  • Underline names of books, plays, long poems published as books, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, films and radio and television programs.
  • Place titles of magazine and newspaper articles, essays, short stories, chapters of books, and individual episodes of radio and television programs in quotation marks.
  • Use the standard two-capital-letter postal abbreviation for states in the publishing information (OR, NY, MA).
  • Abbreviate all months except May, June, and July (Jan., Feb., Mar.).
  • Do not use the titles Mr., Mrs., Dr., etc. or their abbreviations. Do use titles like Jr. or III if part of the person’s name.
  • You may use common scholarly abbreviations and some abbreviations for selected publishers’ names. Consult a style manual like Writers Inc. to determine which are appropriate.

*Consult Writers Inc. (pp. 264-83) for more information and examples.

Copyright and Additional Resources

APA Style
MLA Style

Examples of Bibliographical Style Works Cited

Anthology or Compilation
  • Rubinstein, Ayre. “Children with AIDS and the Public Risk.” AIDS: Factsmn and Issues. Ed. Victor Gong and Norman Rudnick. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1986.
Book by a single author

Cite author in same form as indicated on title page using full name or initials, etc.

  • Allen, Frederick A. Only Yesterday. New York: Harper, 1957.
Book with same author as another source

In place of the author’s name, type 3 hyphens and a period for the second and subsequent titles.

  • —. Since Yesterday. New York: Bantam, 1961.
Book with two authors
  • Bernard, Henry J., and David A. Bennett. New Handbook of the Heavens. Rev. ed. New Haven: Simon, 1948.
Book with three authors
  • Bird, Leonard, John L. Davis, and Henry Rice. Monkey House. Boston: Little, 1972.
Book with more than three authors
  • Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.
Book by a corporate author, even if corporate author is also the publisher:
  • American Library Association. Intellectual Freedom Manual. 2nd ed. Chicago: ALA, 1983.
  • American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Family Medical Guide. Rev. ed. New York: Random House, 1987.
Book with an editor
  • Bridgman, Leo, ed. Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft. New York: McGraw, 1975.
Book with more than three editors
  • Edens, Walter, et al., eds. Teaching Shakespeare. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1977.
Book in Multivolume work

If you have used two or more volumes, cite the total number of volumes in the work:

  • Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. 4 vols. New York: Dodd, 1956-58.

If you have used only one volume of the work:

  • Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. New York: Dodd, 1957.

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Encyclopedia article with an author
  • Bleich, Alan R. “X-Rays.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1997 ed.
  • Marchall, S.L.A. “World War II.” The New Book of Knowledge. Grolier, 1999.
  • Watt, Ward B. “Insect.” World Book. 2001.
Encyclopedia article with no author
  • “Mineral and Rocks.” Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th ed. 1997.
Encyclopedia article from CD-ROM
  • “Anorexia.” Encyclopedia Americana. CD-ROM. Vers. 5.00. Grolier, 1999.
  • “Pasteur, Louis.” Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Deluxe Edition. CD-ROM. Vers. 12.0. 1999.
  • “Puerto Rico.” The World Book. CD-ROM, Vers. 5.0. World Book, 2001.
  • “World War I.” Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe. 2001 ed. CD-ROM. Redmond: Microsoft, 2000.

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Government publication:

Name of Government. Name of Agency. Title of Publication. City: Publisher, copyright.

  • United States. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. Digest of Educational Statistics. Washington: GPO, 1976.
  • Oregon. State Health Div. Immunization: For the Life of Your Child. Salem, OR: Oregon State Printing Division, 1993.

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  • Gadberry, James. Interview. By Tom Lovell. 7 Sept. 1998.

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Letter to the editor
  • Harvey, John. Letter. East Oregonian [Pendleton, OR] 26 Nov. 1994: 6A.
Letter by email
  • Sender. “Subject of Message.” Email to recipient. Date of message. Applebee, Arthur. “High School Reading Lists.” Email to John Scanlan. 20 Apr. 1998.

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Magazine articles
Magazine article with an author
  • Houseman, John. “The Men from Mars.” Harper’s Dec. 1948: 74-82.
Magazine article with no author
  • “Open Secret.” Newsweek 13 Dec. 1977: 62-65.
Magazine article from online source
Magazine article full-text from EBSCOhost:
  • Brodbeck, Emil E. “Who Is Handgun Control, Inc.?” Outdoor Life. Aug. 2000:21. EBSCO-MAS FullTEXT Ultra software, Pendleton High School LMC. 6 Sept. 2000 <http://ehostvgw5.epnet.com&gt;
  • “Presidential Harassment.” Progressive. July 1994: 8+. EBSCO-MAS FullTEXT Ultra. Pendleton High School LMC. 6 Sept. 2000 <http://ehostvgw5.epnet.com&gt;

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Motion pictures
Motion picture on videotape
  • Title. Director or Producer. Videocassette. Distributor, year. It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Videocassette. RKO, 1946.
Motion picture review from an on-line source
Motion picture review from CD-ROM
  • Maltin, Leonard. “The Fugitive.” Cinemania ’95. CD-ROM. Redmond: Microsoft, 1994.
  • “The Fugitive.” CineBooks’ Motion Picture Guide. Cinemania ’96. CD-ROM. Redmond: Microsoft, 1995.
  • “The Fugitive.” Magill’s Survey of Cinema. CD-ROM. Vers. 3.42A. EBSCO, 1995.

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Newspaper article with an author

If the city of publication is not part of the local newspaper’s name, add it in square brackets following the name of the newspaper

  • Andrus, Bill. “Bucks Earn Berth in State Quarterfinals.” East Oregonian [Pendleton, OR] 19 Nov. 1994: B1.
Newspaper article with no author
  • “PriceCostco Recalls Christmas Stocking.” Oregonian [Portland, OR] 19 Nov. 1994, Northwest ed.: F2.
Newspaper article from an online source

Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title. Issue Date, Edition (if given): paging or indicator of length. Access date. < URL >.

  • Schmitt, Eric. “NATO Opponents Vocal, Diverse and Active.” The New York Times. 21 Apr. 1998: 2p. 21 Apr. 1998. <http://www.nytimes.com&gt;.
Newspaper article full-text from EBSCOhost
  • Hicks, Jerry. “Gun Control–Because Accidents Happen.” Los Angeles Times. 31. Aug. 2000, 1p. EBSCO-MAS FullTEXT Ultra. Pendleton High School LMC. 7 Sept 2000. <http://ehostvgw5.epnet.com&gt;

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Pamphlet with no author
  • Career as an Aerospace-Aircraft Engineer. Chicago: Inst. for Research, 1978.
Pamphlet with an author
  • (same as for a book)

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Television and radio programs
  • “Title of Episode or Segment.” Credit (Produced by…Reported by…). Title of Program. Name of Network. Call Letters (if any) City of Local Station (if any), Broadcast Date.
  • “The Bad Samaritan?” Sixty Minutes. Produced by Michael Radutzky. CBS. KEPR, Pasco, WA. 27 Sept. 1998.

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World Wide Web

Use as much of the following as there is information available:

“Title of Page.” Name of Database or Project. Date of posting or update. Name of Organization. Date of access. <Electronic address or URL>.

Parenthetical Documentation

In MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Gibaldi and Achtert state that when writing a research paper “you must document not only your direct quotes and paraphrases but also information and ideas” (155). They state, “The list of works cited at the end of your research paper plays an ientation….The most practical way to supply this important role in your acknowledgment of sources, but it does not in itself provide sufficiently detailed and precise docum information is to insert brief parenthetical acknowledgments in your paper wherever you incorporate another’s words, facts, or ideas. Usually the author’s last name and a page reference are enough to identify the source and the specific location from which you have borrowed material” (Gibaldi and Achtert 155). Full bibliographical information is then included at the end of the paper in Works Cited. Note the example given below for the source I used for this paragraph.

Works Cited:
Gibaldi, Joseph, and Walter S. Achtert. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: MLA, 1988.

Follow these basic guidelines in using parenthetical documentation:
  • Insert the parenthetical documentation in the sentence where there is a normal pause, commonly at the end of a sentence. Place the sentence punctuation mark after the second parenthesis.
  • If you use the author’s name in the text like I did near the beginning of the preceding paragraph, the page number in parentheses is sufficient. (155)
  • If you do not use the author’s name in the text, put both the author’s last name and page number in parentheses as I did at the end of the preceding paragraph. (Gibaldi and Achtert 155)
  • If two or more of the authors have the same last name, include the first initial. (J. Allen 35)
  • If you are using two or more titles by the same author, include the title or a shortened form of it. (Allen, Since 25)
  • If there is no author, use the title or shortened version of it. (A Guide 245)
  • If you are citing from a multivolume work, include the volume and pagination.(Churchill 3: 365)
  • If it is a single page article or one arranged alphabetically like an encyclopedia, you may leave out the page numbers. (“Puerto Rico”)

*Consult Writers Inc. (pp. 259-63) for more information and examples.